These regions eventually became the three main pillars of the final agricultural agreement. But before that happens, the negotiators would have to set the level of concessions to be made, and that lasted another two years of difficult negotiations. One of the achievements of the Uruguay Round would be the WTO-managed Uruguay Round Agricultural Agreement, which allows for full control of agricultural trade under the GATT. Prior to the Uruguay Round, agricultural trade conditions deteriorated with the increasing use of subsidies, stockpiling, lower world market prices and rising support costs.  It provides for the shift from quantitative restrictions to tariffs and a gradual reduction in tariffs. The agreement also contains rules and disciplines for agricultural export subsidies, national subsidies and health and plant health measures (SPS) through the agreement on the application of health and plant health measures Macro-financial assistance was regularly renewed in the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s and was a serious setback in monitoring trade liberalization. As part of the Uruguay Round negotiations, countries approved a comprehensive review of macro-financial assistance. First, the agreement was placed under WTO control and renamed the Textile and Clothing Products Agreement (ATC). Second, countries have decided to abolish quotas altogether for a 10-year transitional period, which will end on 1 January 2005. The 20 agreements were signed in Marrakech in April 1994, the Marrakech agreement.
The agenda, originally enshrined in the Uruguay Round agreements, has experienced additions and modifications. Some items are now part of the Doha agenda, some of which have been updated. 1.1 Background of the Uruguay Round negotiations Nevertheless, it took another four years for ministers to review the new round, be able to clarify and reach a thorough consensus. They did so in September 1986 in Punta del Este, Uruguay. They eventually agreed to a negotiating agenda that covered virtually all outstanding trade policy issues. Discussions are expected to extend the trading system to several new areas, including trade in services and intellectual property, and to reform trade in sensitive agricultural and textile sectors. All original GATT articles were reviewed. It was the largest negotiating mandate ever agreed, and ministers gave themselves four years to conclude it. This chapter presents the context of the Convention on Agriculture.
He gives a brief overview of the history of the GATT and notes that he acknowledges its origin in the 1947 agreement, the reasons for the final extension of the scope of the negotiations to agricultural trade, as well as the countries and issues that dominated the discussions that preceded the agreement. The United States and Europe responded by quoting VERs on cotton textiles with these countries. In the early 1960s, other textile manufacturers, who made clothing with new synthetic fibres such as polyester, began to have the same problem with Japanese exports that cotton producers had faced a few years earlier. For example, the VERs negotiated the export of synthetic fibres, first from Japan and finally from many other Southeast Asian nations. These bilateral VERs continued until exporters and importers of textile products from around the world negotiated multilaterally, culminating in the 1974 Multifibre Agreement (MFA). Macro-financial assistance has set quotas for exports from all major exporting countries to all major importing countries.